Impak van Soönoses op mens en dier

Papegaaisiekte of psittakose is ‘n siekte wat mense in noue aanraking met besmette voëls kom, veral dié wat aan die papegaaifamilie behoort, kan opdoen.  Ten minste 400 voël spesies kan wêreldwyd mense besmet.

Deur dr. Jan H du Preez

‘n Soönose is ‘n siekte of besmetting wat natuurlik oorgedra word van werweldiere (bv. honde, katte, beeste, bokke, wild, skape, pluimvee, voëls, varke, perde, donkies, visse, krokodille en ander reptiele) na die mens en omgekeer.  Wêreldwyd word meer as 200 verskillende soönoses herken. Soönoses word veroorsaak deur verskillende siekteveroorsakende agente (patogene) soos bakterieë, virusse, swamme, protosoë, rickettsias, insekte en wurms. Van 1 415 bekende siekteveroorsakende agente wat mense besmet, is 61% soönoties (‘n siekte wat normal in diere voorkom maar die mens kan besmet), d.w.s. wetenskaplikes bereken dat meer as ses uit tien besmetlike siektes van mense deur diere versprei word. Die wêreldbevolking is gedurende 2021 op 7,9 biljoen bereken. Statistiese data dui daarop dat 10% tot 15% (meer as een miljard mense) of meer van die menslike bevolking op die een of ander tyd ʼn soönotiese besmetting sal opdoen.

Soönoses ondermyn ook die gesondheid, produktiwiteit en reproduksie van diere (melkbeeste en vele meer) wat noodsaaklike voedsel (melk, vleis en eiers) en vesel (wol) produseer asook die werkvermoë van diere. Soönoses kan dus op die lange duur wanvoeding by die mens en veral by kinders aanhelp. Die finansiële impak van soönoses is ook beduidend. Miljoene mense wêreldwyd moet na blootstelling aan hondsdolheid (‘rabies’) voorkomende behandeling ondergaan. Miljoene werksure gaan gevolglik verlore wat geldelike onkoste en spanningsdruk (stres) meebring. Die jaarlikse geldelike verliese as gevolg van tuberkulose, brusellose en hondsdolheid by beeste bedra wêreldwyd etlike biljoene rande; Suid-Afrika is nie daarvan vrygespreek nie. Verder kan soönoses ook geldelike verlies tot gevolg hê omdat dit die uitvoer van melk en vleis asook ander dierprodukte aan bande kan lê. Soönosebeheerprogramme is dus van die uiterste belang, vir sowel die welvaart as die gesondheid van die mens.

Daar is sekere aksies wat ʼn mens kan neem om jouself en jou kinders teen soönotiese siektes te beskerm. Die mens kan die soönotiese besmettings opdoen deur direkte kontak, inaseming, kontak met besmette materiaal of voorwerpe (fomiete), inname deur die mond (bv. besmette water, melk en melkprodukte) en deur insekbyte (bv. Slenkdalkoorsvirusdraende muskiete soos Culex en Aëdes) en die byt deur ‘n virusbesmette Hyalomma-bosluis (bontpootbosluis) wat Krim-Kongo-hemorragiese koors veroorsaak.    Sekere mense se risiko om die siekte op te doen is groter as ander mense.  Mense wat meer waarskynlik soönotiese siektes kan kry, is mense wat ouer as 65 jaar is, kinders onder die ouderdom van vyf jaar, verwagtende vroue, enige person met ʼn gebrekkige immuunsisteem (bv. mense met menslike immuniteitsgebrekvirus (MIV) of verworwe immuniteitsgebreksindroom (vigs) of pasiënte met kanker wat chemoterapie ondergaan.

Soönoses kan met die nodige kennis en inligting voorkom en beheer word.  Opvoeding, opleiding en inligtingvoorsiening is die sleutel om te verseker dat troeteldiere sowel as ander diere asook mense wat kontak het met diere veilig en gesond is. Gebruik net melk wat gepasteuriseer, UHT-behandel, gesteriliseer of gekook is.  Wêreldsoönosedag word jaarliks op 6 Julie gehou om die publiek op te voed en bewus te maak van die belangrikheid van soönoses wêreldwyd en om aktiewe pogings om soönoses te beheer aan te moedig.

Belangrike soönotiese siektes oorgedra deur diere na mense

  • Bakterieë: brusellose, Campylobakter-dermontsteking (kampilobateriose), leptospirose, miltsiekte, salmonellose, tuberkulose asook water- en voedselverbonde siektes en voedselvergiftigings.
  • Virusse: hondsdolheid, Slenkdalkoors, pseudokoeipokke en Krim-Kongo-hemorragiese koors.
  • Protosoë: giardiase en kriptosporidiose of “Crypto”.
  • Swamme: Omloop of dermatomikose.
  • Myte: Sarkoptesbesmetting of sarkoptidose (Sarcoptes scabiei).
  • Wurms: sandworm of velmol (“ringworm”) triginose en eginokokkose of hondeblaaswurmsiekte.

 

 

Mense wat ongepasteuriseerde brusellose besmette melk of ander nie hittebehandelde melk (UHT of gesteriliseerde) drink kan brusellose (maltakoors, golwende koors, besmetlike misgeboorte) opdoen.

 

Foto’s verskaf deur dr Jan H du Preez – Kopiereg voorbehou

Voorblad

Die boek verkoop vir R250 (aflewering koste uitgesluit).

The book sells for R250 (excluding delivery cost).

Bestellings kan geplaas word by Chantel Joubert

Sel/ Cell: +27 72 123 3182

Epos/ E-mail: zoonosesdisease@gmail.com

www.zoonoses.co.za

 

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